Dr. Khayati Santram
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Heart Anatomy

HEART Anatomy ( cardiovascular anatomy):- it is an important circulatory organ .Parts of heart

heart anatomy

APEX is formed by the tip of the  left ventricle and rests on the diaphragm. It is directed anteriorly, inferiorly, and to the  left.


BASE  of the heart is its posterior  surface. It is formed by the atria of the heart.




STERNOCOSTAL OR ANTERIOR SURFACE is  deep to the sternum and ribs.


 DIAPHRAGMATIC OR INFERIOR SURFACE is  the part of the heart between the apex and  right border.


PULMONARY OR LEFT SURFACE is occupies  the cardiac notch of the left lung.




Right border is formed by right atrium  extends from the  inferior surface to the base.Inferior border is formed by right  ventricle and partly left ventricle.Left border also called the pulmonary  border, is formed by left ventricle and the left  auricle, extends  from the base to the apex.

Superior border is formed by both atria.



Grooves on the outer surface of the heart  marking the division between the atria and  the ventricles.

  1. 1. Atrioventricular  sulcus
  2. 2. Anterior interventricular  sulcus
  3. 3. Posterior interventricular  sulcus



 The heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called  the pericardium

 It consists of two main parts:

  1. 1. The fibrous pericardium
  2. 2. The serous pericardium

FIBROUS PERICARDIUMis composed of tough, inelastic,  dense irregular connective tissue.The functions of  fibrous  pericardium is to Prevent overstretching of the heart,Protection of heart,Anchors the heart in the mediastinum

SEROUS PERICARDIUM is a thinner membrane  that forms a double layer around the heart,the outer parietal layer: it is fused to thefibrous pericardium.the inner 

visceral layer is also called  the  epicardium helps the layers of the heart wall to  adheres tightly to the surface of the heart.

Pericardial sinuses:=The lines of reflection between visceral and  parietal pericardium form two pericardial  sinuses TRANSVERSE SINUS

Transverse passage between two tubular reflection of serous pericardium and is lined by the visceral layer only


OBLIQUE SINUS;=It is cul de sac behind the left atrium, enclosed on all the sides except below

Heart has four chambers. Two  superior receiving chambers are the atria.  Two inferior pumping chambers are  the ventricles. AURICLE-Anterior surface of each atrium has a pouch like structure called  an  auricle. Auricle increases the  capacity of an atrium so that it can hold a  greater volume of blood.

Right atrium:- forms the right border of the heart  and receives blood from three veins:the superior vena  cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus. 2–3 mm (0.08–0.12 in.) in thickness.The posterior wall is smooth but the anterior wall is  rough due to the presence of muscular ridges called  pectinate musclesThe right atrium and left atrium is separated by  interatrial septum.

Right atrium consists of 

1. smooth part known as SINUS VENARUM

  • 2. anterior rough part known as ATRIUM PROPER WHICH INCLUDES RIGHT AURICLE.the two parts are seperated by smooth muscular ridge ,the CRISTAE  TERMINALISSINUS VENARUM,It occupies posterior wall and part of the right wall of the atrium



  • 1. Opening of Superior vena cava
  • 2. Opening is not guarded by valve
  • 3. Opening of Inferior vena cava: situated on lower and posterior part of the atrium.
  • 4. Opening is guarded by rudimentary semilunar valve or eustachian (formed by duplication of endocardium)


Opening of coronary sinus

  • 1. it is situated between the opening of IVC and right atrioventricular orifice in lower part of inter atrial septum.
  • 2. This opening is guarded by lower margin by an incomplete semilunar valve Thebesian valve.


Foramina venarum minimarum

  • 1. small openings of vena cordi minimi present in septal wall.


2.Intervenous tubercle

  • small conical projection immediately below opening of Superior vena cava, this tubercle regulates the blood flow
  • 3. Crista terminalis smooth muscular ridge extends from upper part of the atrial septum passes laterally in front of opening of superior vena cava this ridge runs downwards along right wall of the atrium coincides with sulcus terminalis, ends by joining with right horn of valve for IVC.
  • 4. Musculi pectinati: parallel muscular ridges pass forwards from right atrioventricular orifice.
  • Right side of interatrial septum presents following features
  • 5. FOSSA OVALIS:-oval depression above to left of opening of IVC.
  • 6.LIMBUS FOSSA OVALIS:-sickle shaped sharp margin which surrounds upper, anterior and posterior margin of fossa
  • base of septal leaflet of tricuspid valve,
  • behind by antero-medial margin of opening of coronory sinus above by tendon of Todaro (subendocardinal ridge )
  • AV Node lodges in this triangle.



  • 1. parts inflowing rough part or ventricle proper and outflow smooth part (out flow tract) conus arteriosus .
  • 2. Inflow tract recieves blood from the right atrium through AV orifice
  • 3. Outflow tract ejects blood from the ventricular apex into pulmonary trunk through pulmonary orifice.
  • 4.  Supraventricular crest intervens between inflow and outflow tracts


3. Right atrio ventricular orifice and tricuspid valve complex

  • Orifice faces downwards, forwards
  • Opening circumfrence of AV orifice is 10 cm to 12 cm
  • Tricuspid valve complex guards right atrio-ventricular orifice .
  • Valve complex includes


AV Orifice, tricuspid annulus, leaflets or cusps of tricuspid valve, cordae tendineae and papillary muscles.


  • Conical muscular projections
  • Two in number –anterior and posterior
  • It gives attachment to chordae tendineae,
  • Chordae of anterior papillary muscles attached to anterior and posterior leaflet.
  • Posterior papillary muscle are attached to posterior and septal leaflets.
  • Septal cordae are attached to the anterior and septal leaflets.
  • The papillary muscles and their chordae regulate closure of tricuspid valve during systole.



  • they are collagen threads covered by endothelium.
  • 2 variety:-false and true
  • FALSE CORDAE are irregular connecting ventricular wall
  • TRUE CORDAE connect apical part of the papillary muscles to free margin and ventricular surface of tricuspid valve complex.
  • It helps in valve closure during systole and prevents turning of leaflets towards the atrium.
  • Cordae are classified into commissural, cleft, free, marginal, rough zone, deep and basal
  • RIGHT CORONORY ARTERY=Runs between infundibulum of right   ventricle  & right auricle. Runs downwards in anterior   AV groove. Reaches inferior margin of  heart; winds around it to  the diaphgramatic  surface runs in  post AV groove, Ends by anastomosing with circumflex branch  of LCA at the crux.
  • Right conus artery forms circle around pulmonary trunk with similar branch from left coronory artery.
    Annulus of Vieussens, SA Nodal branch – 60%,Anterior  atrial branches, Anterior ventricular  branches,Right Marginal artery,Posterior  ventricular branches, Posterior  Interventriculat branch arises near  Posterior atrial branches, AV Nodal artery – 80%

Right  atrium,Left atrium (anterior part),Right  ventricle except a small strip along the Anterior IV groove ,Diaphragmatic surface of Right  ventricle,Posterior 1/3 of IV septum,SA Node and AV Node


LEFT CORONARY ARTERY Arises from  Left posterior Aortic  sinus,Passes behind  infundibulum of Right  ventricle. Bifurcates into Anterior Interventricular branch (LAD) &  Circumflex artery


LEFT CORONORY ARTERY SUPPLIES. Posterior part of Left Atrium,Anterior  and Lateral walls of Left ventricle

,Anterior  2/3 of IV septum, Left branch  of Bundle of His,SA & AV Nodes in 30% cases

For more information about human body, heart anatomy, human body parts, or any other related topic, please visit My Youtube channel.

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